These programs highlighted the intelligence which could be gained from Japanese POWs, the need to honor surrender leaflets, and the benefits which could be gained by encouraging Japanese forces to not fight to the last man. His in-depth analysis illustrates many parallels between this past enemy and today's adversaries. Part of the resolution to that dilemma may lie right here. Here is a little sample on how bad the POW Camps in Japan were. Typical examples of the camps that produced many condemned criminals are Naoetsu Branch Camp (Tokyo No. 145 AT Bde Coy 1940; 145 Brigade 1940; 2 Gloucestershire Regiment 1939; 2 Gloucestershire Regiment 1940; Cpt.  The number of Japanese soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen who surrendered was limited by the Japanese military indoctrinating its personnel to fight to the death, Allied combat personnel often being unwilling to take prisoners, and many Japanese soldiers believing that those who surrendered would be killed by their captors.. Peak population: 7,318. Few Japanese were aware of the Geneva Convention and the rights it gave prisoners to not respond to questioning. Intelligence-gathering is crucial to the successful prosecution of this struggle.  Hoyt in "Japan’s war: the great Pacific conflict" argues that the Allied practice of taking bones from Japanese corpses home as souvenirs was exploited by Japanese propaganda very effectively, and "contributed to a preference to death over surrender and occupation, shown, for example, in the mass civilian suicides on Saipan and Okinawa after the Allied landings". India was the last line of British defence against the onrushing Japanese tide. Until late 1946, the United States retained almost 70,000 POWs to dismantle military facilities in the Philippines, Okinawa, central Pacific, and Hawaii. They were also questioned once they reached a POW camp in Australia, New Zealand, India or the United States.  There were several incidents at POW camps, however. The assembly camp in Sukabumi, centrally situated in West Java, was gradually evacuated to camps in Tjimahi in May and June 1942. Hoten Camp; Harbin Camp; Mukden POW Camp; Camps in Dutch East Indies. Location of Infringing Material. Renamed as Fukuoka Main Camp on March 1, 1943 and took over the duty of Yawata Temporal POW Camp. Malaysia, Burma, Borneo and Singapore were British colonies at the outbreak of hostilities – all occupied by Japan’s armed forces. A map showing the locations of concentration camps across Japan.  By 1943 the Allied governments were aware that personnel who had been captured by the Japanese military were being held in harsh conditions. On 25 February 1943, POWs at the Featherston prisoner of war camp in New Zealand staged a strike after being ordered to work. Includes Taiwan POW Camp - rosters of Camps #1, 4, 6 as of August, 1945 and list of Japanese officers as of September 9, 1945. Fort Belvoir: Ziedon Press. Corbin also makes a compelling case on the similarity between an islamic jihadist and a soldier of the Imperial Japanese Army- both are hardened ideologues willing to die for their beliefs.  Overall, however, Allied submariners usually did not attempt to take prisoners, and the number of Japanese personnel they captured was relatively small. The History of Camp Tracy : Japanese WWII POWs and the Future of Strategic Interrogation. , Allied forces continued to kill many Japanese personnel who were attempting to surrender throughout the war. 3 Fukuoka Main (No POWs) - 3rd Location . Camp Locations This map shows the POW camps in the immediate vicinity of Germany. There were several incidents at POW camps, however. 4 Kumamoto Branch Camp (Fukuoka # 1-B) - 1st Location. The Japanese government expressed no concern for these abuses, however, as it did not want IJA soldiers to even consider surrendering. These photographs show the skeletal state of British prisoners in Japan at the end of the Second World War.  This included dropping copies of the Geneva Conventions and 'surrender passes' on Japanese positions. Name of camp, county, average number of prisoners, principle type of work, and dates of operation. *Besides the above, there were following camps by jurisdiction of Malay POW Camp along the Thai-Burma Railway. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations, Select the department you want to search in, No Import Fees Deposit & $9.78 Shipping to Republic of Korea.  The Army's Field Service Regulations were also modified in 1940 to replace a provision which stated that seriously wounded personnel in field hospitals came under the protection of the 1929 Geneva Convention for the Sick and Wounded Armies in the Field with a requirement that the wounded not fall into enemy hands.  It is likely that more Japanese soldiers would have surrendered if they had not believed that they would be killed by the Allies while trying to do so. However, it is not just a niche treatise for the military interrogator, it is a great read for anyone who loves history. In addition to 36,000 Allied POWs transported to the Japanese Mainland, soldiers were imprisoned at locations in the Philippines, Singapore, China, Burma, Korea, and Hong Kong. 231 Japanese POW and four Australians lost their lives during the breakout.  The British also used armed Japanese Surrendered Personnel to support Dutch and French attempts to reestablish their colonial empires in the Netherlands East Indies and Indochina respectively. MacArthur reversed his position in December of that year, however, but only allowed the publication of photos that did not identify individual POWs. These interrogations were painful and stressful for the POWs. The History of Camp Tracy: Japanese WWII POWs and the Future of Strategic Interrogation By Alexander Corbin. 6 Fukuoka Branch Camp (Fukuoka # 1-B) - 3rd Location. So we have the dilemma of determining how the United States can successfully obtain necessary information from a foreign and hostile enemy without alienating its own citizenry and the international community. Reviewed in the United States on September 10, 2009. This fear grew out of years of battle experiences in China, where the Chinese guerrillas were considered expert torturers, and this fear was projected onto the American soldiers who also were expected to torture and kill surrendered Japanese. Location: Opened : Closed: Population: Amache (Granada), CO: Opened: August 24, 1942. Price: $9.95 The United States' Global War on Terrorism is in its sixth year with no end in sight. As an earlier reviewer stated this book is relevant, especially in light of recent debates over the tactics and techniques of CIA interrogation procedures. Those taken by the Soviet Union were treated harshly in work camps located in Siberia. Conditions at the camp were subsequently improved, leading to good relations between the Japanese and their New Zealand guards for the remainder of the war. Find all the books, read about the author, and more.  Japanese attitudes towards surrender also contributed to the harsh treatment which was inflicted on the Allied personnel they captured. In an attempt to win better treatment for their POWs, the Allies made extensive efforts to notify the Japanese government of the good conditions in Allied POW camps. Interesting book about some local history that hasn't been covered before. Some of the conditions at Camp Tracy violated Geneva Convention requirements, such as insufficient exercise time being provided. , Estimates of the numbers of Japanese personnel taken prisoner during the Pacific War differ.  In addition, 24 Japanese POWs killed themselves at Camp Paita, New Caledonia in January 1944 after a planned uprising was foiled. Reviewed in the United States on January 26, 2016.  This policy reflected the practices of Japanese warfare in the pre-modern era. The History of Camp Tracy: Japanese WWII POWs and the Future of Strategic Interrogation By Alexander Corbin. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. Initially at Palembang civilian and military personnel were mixed together but the Japanese soon sorted the two groups out and sent each to separate camps. Propoganda Pictures Russia and Area POWS; Rommel Propoganda Pics; Library .  While the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) did not issue a document equivalent to the Senjinkun, naval personnel were expected to exhibit similar behavior and not surrender. 20 Horrific Details about Japanese POW Camps During World War II By Steve. A walking trail goes through the camp ruins and a scale model of the camp is on display at the Cowra Visitors Centre. The History of Camp Tracy: Japanese WWII POWs and the Future of Strategic Interrogation by Alexander Corbin and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. a, As the Japanese forces in China were mainly on the offensive and suffered relatively few casualties, few Japanese soldiers surrendered to Chinese forces prior to August 1945. 12th October 1942: Brutal treatment in Japanese PoW camp. The prisoners appreciated the opportunity to converse with Japanese-speaking Americans and felt that the food, clothing and medical treatment they were provided with meant that they owed favours to their captors. , The Japanese military's attitude towards surrender was institutionalized in the 1941 "Code of Battlefield Conduct" (Senjinkun), which was issued to all Japanese soldiers. Following the war the prisoners were repatriated to Japan, though the United States and Britain retained thousands until 1946 and 1947 respectively and the Soviet Union continued to hold as many as hundreds of thousands of Japanese POWs until the early 1950s.  Force was not used in interrogations at any level, though on one occasion headquarters personnel of the US 40th Infantry Division debated, but ultimately decided against, administering sodium penthanol to a senior non-commissioned officer. While the Japanese feared that they would be subjected to reprisals, they were generally treated well. 145 AT Bde Coy 1940; 145 Brigade 1940; 2 Gloucestershire Regiment 1939; 2 Gloucestershire Regiment 1940; Cpt. This is an incomplete list of Japanese-run military prisoner-of-war and civilian internment and concentration camps during World War II. The Japanese Government responded stating that while it had not signed the convention, Japan would treat POWs in accordance with its terms; in effect though, Japan had willfully ignored the convention's requirements. Moreover, the POWs felt that by surrendering they had lost all their rights. At the Japanese headquarters, the Kempetai (secret police) tried to find out what equipment the British had and how many aircraft. Those who chose to surrender did so for a range of reasons including not believing that suicide was appropriate or lacking the will to commit the act, bitterness towards officers, and Allied propaganda promising good treatment. Japanese Prisoners of War in India, 1942-46 : Bushido and Barbed Wire. It was led by a Jap commander who used to be a businessman. , During the 1920s and 1930s, the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) adopted an ethos which required soldiers to fight to the death rather than surrender. The History of Camp Tracy: Japanese WWII POWs and the Future of Strategic Interrogation by Alexander Corbin and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. Hundreds of emaciated servicemen were found following the fall of Japan in 1945. During World War II, it has been estimated that between 19,500 and 50,000 members of the Imperial Japanese military were captured alive or surrendered to Western Allied combatants, prior to the end of the Pacific War in August 1945. During the war, this led to wounded personnel being either killed by medical officers or given grenades to commit suicide.  The treatment of Japanese POWs in Siberia was also similar to that suffered by Soviet prisoners who were being held in the area. This attitude was reinforced by the indoctrination of young people.  Most Japanese military personnel were told that they would be killed or tortured by the Allies if they were taken prisoner.  As a result, from May 1944, senior US Army commanders authorized and endorsed educational programs which aimed to change the attitudes of front line troops. It reportedly received more than 100 emails of inquiry from outside the country. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. The 2/4th Machine Gun battalion arrived at Roberts Artillery Barracks at 0300 hours on the 18th February 1942. Additional locations based on newspapers, interviews, and other NARA …  Fear of being killed after surrendering was one of the main factors which influenced Japanese troops to fight to the death, and a wartime US Office of Wartime Information report stated that it may have been more important than fear of disgrace and a desire to die for Japan. (2008), Japanese prisoners of war of World War II, 1929 Geneva Convention for the Sick and Wounded Armies in the Field, war crimes committed against US and Allied nationals, Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, https://www.nytimes.com/1998/04/12/world/japan-s-blossoms-soothe-a-pow-lost-in-siberia.html, http://www.japansubculture.com/the-last-japanese-man-remaining-in-kazakhstan-a-kafkian-tale-of-the-plight-of-a-japanese-pow-in-the-soviet-union/, "Understanding the Enemy: Military Intelligence, Political Warfare and Japanese Prisoners of War in Australia, 1942–45", United States Army Center of Military History, Australia in the War of 1939–1945. During the Meiji period the Japanese government adopted western policies towards POWs, and few of the Japanese personnel who surrendered in the Russo-Japanese War were punished at the end of the … Opened 1 November 1945, unknown closing date. Although documentation is scarce, as with the end of the war Japanese Armed Forces systematically destroyed much of the limited available documentation related to their POW Camps, enough remains, in addition to survivor and witness accounts, to provide a horrific picture of life and captivity for Allied prisoners of war in the Pacific Theater. The registers give minimal information about each prisoner, apparently compiled for the Japanese camp administration although the majority of the information is given in English.  It has been estimated that at the end of the war Chinese Nationalist and Communist forces held around 8,300 Japanese prisoners. This change attracted little attention, however, as the Senjinkun imposed more severe consequences and had greater moral force. The protest turned violent when the camp's deputy commander shot one of the protest's leaders. Something went wrong. 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